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Typhoid Mary

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Originally published 1996
Authors Judith Walzer Leavitt
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About Typhoid Mary

In this book, historian Judith Walzer Leavitt tells the remarkable story of Mary Mallon, the woman known as "Typhoid Mary". Combining social history with biography, Leavitt brings to life early-twentieth-century New York City, a world of strict class divisions and prejudice against immigrants and women. . . .

Coronavirus: The secret of asymptomatic "silent spreader'

Feb 16,2020 10:19 am

How has unfolded to The Crisis , researchers discovered additional information about a strange and disturbing feature of the coronavirus. While many People who become infected develop a cough, fever, and loss of taste and smell, while others have no Symptoms at all and never realize they carry Covid-19.

researchers say it is important to understand how many are affected in this way, and whether "silent spreader" are fuelling the pandemic.

When The People gathered in a Church in Singapore on 19 January, nobody would have noticed, That The Event would have global implications for the spread of the coronavirus. It was a Sunday and, as usual, one of the services, which were conducted in Mandarin. In the Assembly The Life of The Church and of the missions, on the Ground Floor of an office building, was a married couple, both aged 56 years, who'd arrived in the morning from China .

As they took their seats, she seemed totally healthy, So There was no reason to believe That they could carry The Virus . In this time, a persistent cough was to be understood, is the peculiarity of Covid-19 and it was considered to be The Most likely way to transmit it. As you said no Symptoms of the Disease should not have a chance to spread.

The couple left as soon as The Service was over. But shortly thereafter, things took a turn for the worse, and in a completely confusing way. The Woman began to be sick on January 22, followed by Her Husband Two Days later. Because they had flown in from Wuhan, the epicenter of the outbreak, it was not a big surprise.

three local People came But in the course of The Following week, even with the Disease for no apparent reason, leading to one of Singapore 's first and most confusing coronavirus cases. You are working Out , what would happen, leads to a new and disturbing insight into how The Virus was so successful, the search of new victims.

mobilization of the 'Disease detectives'

"We were very perplexed," says Dr. Vernon Lee , head of communicable diseases at the Singapore Ministry of Health. "People who don't know each other somehow every other" infected, while no signs of the Disease . This new batch of cases, which was not easy to make sense according to the known, about Covid-19 at The Time .

Dr. Lee and his colleagues, together with police officers and specialists, Disease trackers, launched an investigation, which shows the generation of detailed maps of who was where when. This Was The Best of The Process known as contact tracing - a version That is always on the go now in the UK. It looks like a vital system for the detection of all involved in an outbreak and the support of the stamp, and Singapore is famous for the skill and speed with which this is carried Out .

Early in the pandemic, was in Singapore as a shining example of how The Fight against The Virus

Amazingly, within a few days, investigators had spoken, not less than 191 members of The Church , and found That 142 of them have been there That Sunday. You have very quickly found That two of the Singaporeans were infected on the same service as the Chinese pair.

"they would have each other, greeted each other, while the usual activities of Dr. Lee says a Church service,".

That was a useful start and would also explain, in the theory of how the infection may have been passed, apart from one important factor. It have no answer to the crucial question of how The Virus is transmitted by the two Chinese would have had if at That time they showed no signs of the Disease .

And on top of That , an even bigger mystery. It was confirmed That The Third in Singapore to be plugged, a 52-year-old woman, were at the same service as The Other . Instead, they had another event attended in the same Church later That Day , so, as you have picked up a virus might?

the evidence, no one expected That

attacked the investigator to go through the CCTV footage in The Church That Sunday to search for clues. And she tripped over something completely Unexpected - The Woman who attended would the later service, according to the Chinese pair had withdrawn, sat in the seats That they had used several hours earlier.

to spread Somehow, even though you have no Symptoms and do not feel sick, the Chinese man and woman had done it, The Virus . Maybe you had it on your hands and the seats touched, perhaps, the breath, the infection, and it landed on a surface, it is not clear, But the implications were huge.

Dr. Lee, piecing everything together, there was only one possible explanation -That The Virus was passed on, from People who had it, without realizing at all. This Was a revelation in The World , because the Central message of all the Public Health advice on coronavirus always look for the Symptoms in yourself and others.

But if The Virus was also from People without Symptoms , invisible and silent, as the Disease could be stopped? He remembers The Moment , while working in his office when the reality dawned on him. "Every time a scientific discovery, it's like a 'eureka' moment when you realize That this is something important That you have discovered, through the Hard Work of many individuals and teams. "

Spread before you show Symptoms

What was revealed, what is known as "pre-symptomatic transmission", where someone is not aware of being infected, because the cough, fever and other classical Symptoms have not yet begun.

Singapore saw an increase in cases to have to appear, The Virus is under control

Along with many others, in this study marks a critical period of 24-48 hours prior to the visible onset of the Disease , in which People are highly contagious, and perhaps their most contagious.

this consciousness is potentially of inestimable value, because as soon as you find That you are sick And Then everyone can be in close contact with the warned to stay At Home .

That would mean you would isolate itself during the crucial phase of infection before you start on your own Symptoms . But exactly how the Disease is transmitted, without the cough droplets of the project, with The Virus is still an open question.

One possibility is That you just breathe, or speak to someone who can do The Job . When The Virus reproduces in the upper respiratory tract, at this time, Then it is possible That some arise it with each exhale. Someone on the inside, Close Enough , especially, could easily pick up.

And another possible form of transmission is By Touch , The Virus on your hands and you Touch another person or a door handle or a seat in a Church. Regardless of the route of The Virus , the advantage of the fact That The People are bound to be less vigilant when they could not be infected aware, That is quite clear.

Some People never show Symptoms

This is an even More mysterious " - scenario, And One That scientists have no definite answer. It is one thing to know That People can be contagious before they show their Symptoms , quite another when you are infected, But never any signs of it.

This is what is known as "asymptomatic", because they are carriers of the Disease , But not in any way themselves. The Most famous case is That of an Irish Woman who worked as a cook in New York at the beginning of The Last century.

Where Mary Mallon was employed in the house after house, People has been died sick with typhoid fever and at least three, and probably many More , But she was completely unaffected. Finally, a connection was made and it was confirmed That they are the unwitting spreader of the Disease .

the Reporter called her "Typhoid Mary ," a designation That hated you always, But The Authorities took no chances and kept her in detention for 23 years until her death in 1938.

assumptions undermine

The Nurse Amelia Powell was shocked when she found Out That she is asymptomatic. She was. at work in your hospital ward at Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge in April for a doctor who rang to give her the result of a smear test

she had the feeling normal and safe behind The Personal protective equipment to wear while caring for patients with Covid-19. But suddenly, all these assumptions are undermined because they were tested to their horror, they had a positive effect.

"It was a bit of a How To That someone in The Family had passed on, it was surreal. "I thought, 'This can't be right with me, I'm absolutely fine,"" says the 23-year-old Amelia.

she had to leave to go to your post immediately, in the isolation At Home .

at The Moment , it is impossible to know how many cases of the infection will remain hidden.

the researchers from The People who tested positive had no Symptoms .

singapore, coronavirus lockdown measures, coronavirus pandemic, coronavirus testing

Source of news: bbc.com

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