Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution.
With A Number of Women running to take on President Donald Trump in the 2020 election, The President 's language about his opponents will undoubtedly be a recurring issue. But is there really a gender difference to his attacks?
Ms Yovanovitch, who Mr Trump recalled from her post in May, testified in The Public phase of the impeachment inquiry on 15 November. She told lawmakers she was removed in a smear campaign by those with "questionable intentions".
Professor Marianne LaFrance, a psychologist at Yale University , says this remark is a prime example of gendered language.
"That referencing says she's not an individual, she's not a professional, she's first and foremost a woman," Prof LaFrance says.
And once language is used to "mark" someone, it "taps into a whole universe of stereotypes" That are typically unconscious.
Even before he became President , Mr Trump had a history of controversial comments about Women . His comments in a 2005 Access Hollywood tape about grabbing Women "by the pussy" are perhaps The Most notorious, and made headlines in 2016.
"The kind of things That he said about Hillary Clinton, Carly Fiorina , Elizabeth Warren , Heidi Cruz - The List goes on - he talks about Women , any prominent, powerful woman, in The Most demeaning of ways, trivialising them. "
Even Women backing Mr Trump have not been immune to subtly gendered critiques.
On Friday, Mr Trump told Fox & Friends his adviser Kellyanne Conway was great, but "must have done some number" on her husband, George, who is a Trump critic.President Trump and his daughter Ivanka in Texas Women :
From a psychology perspective, Prof LaFrance says when comments go into The Realm of insult, they can be insidiously harmful.
A recent study looking at how Women are affected by overhearing sexism Found That even when a comment was not directed at The Listener , it had a negative impact on a woman's self-esteem, measured by how well she evaluated her own performance and abilities following The Incident , Prof LaFrance explains.
With Mr Trump specifically, Prof LaFrance says when he criticises female opponents, he often reduces them to a sexual object or someone unworthy of respect or attention.
"Comments about a woman not being strong, a notion That she's frail or weak - those appear to be much milder in comparison to talking about her pussy, but they have as damaging, if not more damaging effects On Women ," Prof LaFrance says, as it taps into existing notions That Women are perceived as less-than Men .Trump - Champion of Women ?
In addition to Ivanka, who is a White House adviser, the highest profile members of the administration defending The President on a daily basis are Ms Conway and press secretary Stephanie Grisham . Ms Grisham's predecessor too, was a woman - Sarah Huckabee Sanders.The Women who love Trump
Analysis by Tara McKelvey
"I understand some of his quips are not popular," says Virginia Derby Jordan, a lawyer who lives in Orange County , Virginia.
In addition, Jordan and other Republicans like the way he has hired Women such as Kellyanne Conway , a counsellor to The President , for high-profile roles: "He has put Women in very important places," Jordan says.Men too?
"It's always about demeaning Men in order to make them less tough, less strong, in many ways, less masculine," says Ms Walsh.
"We know Women are often targeted on the political front, threatened certainly online, and singling them out and using very loaded language about those four Women was one of The Most egregious things. "How might this play out in 2020?
Found a stark gender divide for Mr Trump's approval ratings.
Ms Walsh says Mr Trump could see real challenges in winning over white, college educated, suburban Women who are typically Republicans "in part because of this language, this behaviour and the way he treats Women ".
"The gendered language is already Out There ," says Ms Walsh.
"I think That it is likely on the Democratic side, That One Way or another, there will be a woman on The Ticket [for President or vice-President ]. And I'm sure That woman will come under attack. . I think we're in for more of the Same . "